How to find open databases with the help of Shodan and Lampyre
Today I’ll be telling you about the tool which combines the advantages of many tools for Cyber Threat Intelligence and Open Source Intelligence Gathering (OSINT) and which allows you to analyze the obtained data in a comfy way. You’ll learn how to easily find databases without any authentication using the Shodan capabilities with the Lampyre tools. Of course, Shodan can also be used for mining other interesting data. For example, you can visualize the location of web cameras on a map, get info on the devices with enabled RDP and take a look at their screenshots and a lot more, but all this — a topic for some other time. (Our video tutorial on searching for open databases is available to watch here.)
The problems with unsafe default configurations of some databases are no news and are widely discussed on the Web. However, regardless of that, many still don’t pay enough attention.
Latest news on the data leaks of the American Express India and Voxox’s database (running on Amazon’s Elasticsearch) only confirms this. Nobody is protected against human mistakes and sometimes the price of these mistakes is just too high!
MongoDB, Elasticsearch, Cassandra and some other databases do not have authorization enabled by default. This means that anyone in the Internet may not only look into their content and download it but also change the existing data or use it in some fraudulent activities — for example, phishing or encrypting all data and then demanding for bitcoins or any other. The same may happen to some other services, such as FTP for example.
WARNING!! The following information is provided solely in educational purposes and by no means encourages any action against the laws. Please remember that any data fraudulence and unauthorized access is considered a crime. Use this information for research purposes only and please inform the DB owners if you come across their confidential data so that they wouldn’t be involved in any data leak situations.
Yes-yes, sure you can scan all ranges of IP-addresses yourself and have your own VPN-servers to conduct your research. But in order to make it much quicker and easier, it’s enough to just launch a couple of requests in Lampyre with different search parameters, using its imbedded integration with API Shodan.
There are so many of such parameters and today I’ll talk about only two. Let’s assume I want to find any open mongodbs, which were indexed by Shodan last week. Here is a step-by-step of how to do it:
1. Download Lampyre from the lampyre.io website, unpack the archive and install it;
2. Launch the app, spend a couple of minutes to acquire your free license and then create an investigation;
3. In the List of Requests window, choose the Shodan Search request. In the input parameters indicate MongoDB product and set the required time period (November 23–30, for example)
Note: this request gives back the results by pages, 100 results per 1 page. In order to get more data right away, input 1–10 into the Page or Range field and you will get 1000 results;
4. Click Execute and — voila! — enjoy scrolling through your 1000 mongoDBs found.
However, these 1000 mongoDBs are not exactly what we really need. Shodan indexes all services working in the open networks. Also it returns info on the structure of databases: list of MongoDB collections, list of available commands and other technical parameters. This data is available in the Data column.
Here is a screenshot of an example:
Some things might have changed since Shodan indexed, so in order to understand if any database may still be accessed at this moment and what its current structure is, you’ll have to perform one more request. Guess which one? — Ta-dah! Right, Explore DB: MongoDB. What does it do? In real time and through a chain of VPN-servers this request tries to connect to the found MongoDBs by IP-addresses, which act as the input parameters.
So to make it more comfortable for me to perform this request and visualize the results in a convenient way, I will transfer the info on the Shodan Mongo DBs to a schema and select all their obtained IP-addresses in the Content window, right-click any of them (to use them as input parameters) and choose the Explore DB request in the context menu.
As a result, if there is no authorization set in the DB, you’ll get its current structure, list of collections with the quantity and names of the documents in them.
What to do with this data? Everyone decides for himself…
Similar research can be performed in Lampyre also for Elasticsearch and FTP. There will be more requests available soon. Stay tuned!
And by the way, nothing stops you from working with 1000 or even 10000 IP-addresses as input parameters, but this is the matter to talk about in our next posts.
A short video on the topic of this article is available on our youtube channel where you can also find some other tutorials on Cyber Threat intelligence. If you go to the channel after reading this article please feel free to comment on the video. If you have any ideas on using Lampyre for Cyber Security you can also Tweet us.
Have a great week!